Geomorphometry methods for the classifications and analysis of the isolated hills in Lebanon

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Jean A. Doumit Naji J. Kehdi


Geomorphometry methods for mountain ordering and classifications allow the recognizable proof of precise connections between different morphological parameters. The geomorphometric analysis incorporates quantitative estimation and examination of geography, it explores the impact of help, on landform evolution. Lebanese Mountains are classified based on the hydrological method of Strahlers stream order, closed-loop concentric contour lines define the first-order mountain. Higher-order mountains are defined by a set of closed contour lines containing lower-order mountains and have only one closed contour line for each elevation. This paper generates and classify mountains orders by their circularity forms and test the magnitude of isolated hills dissection, to understand their spatial location and the reason there are. These diverse lithologies and tectonic activities have contributed to developing many types of natural isolated hills of different forms such as circular, oval elongated, and complex shapes. The dissection of these forms of different mountain orders is analyzed by studying the variations in dissection index with mountains order and tested with the geological map of Lebanon. The result shows that the High dissection index value goes to the first and second mountains orders due to high erosion expressed by the high terrain relative relief, and the isolated hills were caused by the orogenic phase which began in the Upper Jurassic during the rise of the two mountainous chains Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. These isolated hills are mainly part of the Cenomanian of the Cretaceous and the Upper Jurassic formed by the erosion generated from the stream density during this period.

Keywords: Mountains order, dissection index, circularity index

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How to Cite
Doumit, J., & Kehdi, N. (2020). Geomorphometry methods for the classifications and analysis of the isolated hills in Lebanon. International Journal in Information Technology in Governance, Education and Business, 2(1), 27-35. Retrieved from